Adrenal Crisis

April 11, 2021

Adrenal crisis or insufficiency is a life threatening emergency due to the lack of glucocorticoid. Adrenal crisis can be primary due to destruction of the… Read more


April 15, 2020

Experience is showing that those with diabetic patients with COVID-19 are more likely to develop DKA/HSS. However, treating them with the traditional large amount of… Read more

Covid-19 (Hyperglycaemia)

July 17, 2020

Both COVID-19 infection and treatment with dexamethasone impair glycemic control. So its important to monitor blood sugars and consider DKA & HHS in COVID-19 patients.… Read more

Diabetic Hyperglycaemia (Kids)

September 20, 2019

Diabetic children sometimes attend ED with hyperglycaemia, but not in DKA (what should we do?) Paeds have produced some advice to follow: Ketones over 0.6?… Read more

DKA – Adult

November 28, 2019

Things to remember Give 0.9%NaCl Actrapid “Fixed Rate” 0.1unit/kg/hr Basal Insulin (lantus/levemir) give this too – usual time and dose Potassium – if below 5.5 will… Read more

DKA in Kids

April 27, 2021

Diabetic Ketoacidosis – remember in paediatrics this may be the 1st presentation of diabetes. Fluid – are more considered that adults due to the risk… Read more

DVLA – Driving & Medical Conditions

November 28, 2020

For many conditions the patient should be informed to stop driving and inform the DVLA of their condition. It is the patients responsibility to inform the… Read more


June 10, 2020

90% of hypercalcaemia is due to either malignancy or hyperparathyroid. Severity: Adjusted Calcium (Ca) Severe: >3.5mmol/l – URGENT treatment (risk of dysrhythmia) Moderate: 3.0-3.5mmol/l  – PROMPT treatment (maybe well tolerated if… Read more


December 3, 2020

Remember: is it a haemolysed blood sample? (you can do an iSTAT) Severity Mild: 5.5-5.9mmol/l – No urgent action required (Dietary & Medication modification &… Read more


February 14, 2021

Hypernatraemia is a not a common presentation in ED, as intense thirst often prevents significant hypernatraemia in neurologically intact individuals. So… Mortality rates are high… Read more

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS)

January 13, 2020

HHS (A.K.A. HONK) is a diabetic emergency, but unlike DKA we don’t always think about it. Patients with HHS are often elderly with multiple co-morbidities,… Read more


January 13, 2020

Hypocalcaemia can life threatening, due to arrhythmias and seizures. Severity – Adjusted Calcium (Ca) Mild: >1.9mmol/l Severe: ≤1.9mmol/l OR Symptomatic Read more

Hypoglycaemia – Adult

June 10, 2019

Hypoglycaemia (Blood glucose under 4.0 mmol/l) is potentially fatal and should be treated. it may be defined as “mild” self-treated, or “severe” treated by a… Read more


June 10, 2020

Hypokalaemia (low potassium), is a common problem. It is found in 14% of outpatients and 20% of inpatients, however only 4-5% of those are of… Read more


December 11, 2019

Classification Normal: 1.1-0.7 Mild: 0.69-0.5 Moderate: 0.49-0.4 Severe: <0.4 Signs/Symps (normally <0.5) MSK: Muscle Twitch, Tremor, Tetany, Cramps CNS: Apathy, Depression, Hallucination, Agitation, Confusion, Seizure… Read more


January 13, 2020

Hyponatraema is a common finding, especially within our elderly population. However, its significance is is not a simple numbers game, and needs senior input. Prior… Read more


November 24, 2019

Remove COLD, Add WARM, Don’t SHAKE 32-35ºC [Mild] – Shivering, Tachycardia, Tachypnoeic, Vasoconstriction 30-32ºC [Moderate] – Shivering stops, Pale/Cyanosed, Hypotensive, Confused, Lethargic <30ºC [Severe] –… Read more

Paediatric Hypoglycaemia

November 27, 2020

Paediatric Hypoglycaemia (BM <2.6) is a relatively common presentation in the Emergency Department. However, if we don’t do the BM it’s easy to miss. Hypoglycaemia… Read more

Proximal Myopathy/Muscle Weakness

May 1, 2021

The Case An elderly patient attends the ED with difficulty mobilising, Nursing staff tell you that the patient needs a CT head for STROKE? –… Read more

RCEM CPD Conference Day 3

April 4, 2019



January 15, 2021

We often worry about patients developing rhabdomyolysis and consequently developing AKI. However, there is much debate and little consistency in the published data, over how… Read more