Category: Resources


NIPPV 3 machines are used throughout the trust to deliver NIV and CPAP – and should be commenced in ED if transfer to ward/ICU is adding significant delay

  • NIV/CPAP  is an Aerosol Generating Proceedure (AGP)
    • Staff must wear full APG PPE
    • In Side room with a door
    • Door Marked with APG sign – HERE
  • CPAP/EPAP levels of 8-15cmH2O

This video demonstrates how to set up CPAP on the NIPPV 3


#RCEMasc 2019 – Day 3


ETT vs SGA (i.e. iGel) in out of hospital cardiac arrest (trauma and kids excluded)

  • Headline Results: 
    • Survival with good neurological out come (MRS 0-3) – No difference around 2.75% (for those that required either SGA or ETT)
    • Easiest – SGA easier achieving ventilation within 2 attempts (87.4% vs 79%)
    • Displacement – SGA suffer more displacement (10% vs 5%)
    • Aspiration – No difference around 15%
  • Interesting Results:
    • Survival – approx. 20%  in those that didn’t have an advanced airway attempted (indicating likely survival advantage of only needing a short resus)
    • Paramedic use of advance airways – Paramedics on average only need to use advanced airways 3-4 times a year!
    • PART study (USA) – ETT vs Larangeal Tube no difference
    • BMV vs ETT (France & Belgium) – no difference in out come, but BMV was more difficult


Adrenaline vs Placebo in out of hospital cardiac arrest

  • Headline Results:
    • Survival to hospital admission: adrenaline 23.8% vs placebo 8% (Significant)
    • Survival @ 3 months: adrenaline 3% vs placebo 2.2% (Significant)
    • Survival @ 3 months with good neurological outcome (MRS 0-3): adrenaline 2.1% vs placebo 1.6% (Non-Significant)
  • Interesting Result:
    • What did the public thing was the important outcome? In the restudy survey 95% of public reported that survival with good neurological outcome was more important than surviving to hospital.
    • Extrapolation of Adrenaline use: to all UK adult cardiac arrests in a year, adrenaline would increase:
      • ROSC: 5602
      • Admissions: 3555
      • ICU Admissions: 1643
      • Discharged Alive: 203
      • Favourable Outcomes (MRS 0-3): 68
      • Unfavourable Outcomes (MRS 4-5): 135
    • What should happen? International resus (ILCOR) now strongly recommend adrenaline use, however, we probably need public consultation

TXA for bleeding

Dr Ian Roberts

  • Inhibits fibrinolysis – i.e. stops plasmin breaking down clots
  • Treats bleeding – NOT coagulopathy
  • Given TXA Early – as tPA activates early and PIA-1 is later, we need to stop the tPA
    • 15min treatment delay > 10% reduction in effect
  • Give on the suspicion of bleeding? – you get the same risk reduction  what ever your base line risk (i.e. 30% risk of death > 20%, 3% risk > 2%)
  • Safety – in Japan TXA bought over the counter for headaches
  • RCT’s
    • Surgery – TXA reduces blood loss by 1/3 & death, NO increase in clot events
    • Post-Partum Haemorrhage – PPH reduced by 1/3
    • Trauma – Sig. reduction in DEATH (<1hr reduced by 1/3, 1-3hr by 1/5)
    • Vascular occlusive events – data seems to show TXA reduces them
      • Bad bleeding  increases vascular-occlusive events
    • Brain  – results apparently don’t contradict other studies but full results in 2weeks
    • GIT – results due next yea, recruitment stopped in uk as TXA was being give anyway
  • Why have the infusion? – added to regime to (theoretically) replace the loses from ongoing bleed, its utility is unknown.

Lightning papers

  • Mobile phone use @ work(Derby)
    • 80% patients thought it ws fine – this increased to 95% if explained for medical reason
    • Patients didn’t want – you to be using it while talking to them (distraction/rude), dont wipe it on them (infection control)
  • Hair Ties with glue (HAT) vs Suture (not those that would only have been glued anyway)
    • Reduced pain
    • Reduced follow up
    • increased patient satisfaction (less pain and no need to see
    • Faster and increased staff satisfaction
  • No Room @ the Inn (Bristol children)
    • Used winter pressures money to open the clinic space next to ED 18:00-23:00 (if needed)
    • Opened it 50% of the time
    • Used it for 10% of patients
    • Minor Injury/Illness (they do have a UTC)
    • Staffed from the ED
    • Patients and Staff like it!
    • Plymouth also do – staff love it as almost a break from the chaos of majors
  • Who’s pain are we treating?
    • 50% Dr’s assume patients want a prescription, but <30% actually do
    • Patients expect more pain in the following days – than Dr’s expect
    • Patients want to know that codeine is potentially addictive within 3 days
    • They have reduced co-codamol scrpts from approx 10% to 3% of discharges – with no increase in complaints or patient satisfaction.

Mental Health

  • RESPOND  – multiagency mental health crisis simulation
    • Everyone has to make the decisions of each role (Police, Nurse, Dr, Paramedic)
    • Reduced demand on each agency
    • Strengthens partnerships
    • Streamlines process
  • Presentation in the ED –  RCEM mental health tool kit
    • Triage:
      • Agitation, Environment, Intent, Objects
      • VISA: Violent,Irrational thought, Suicidal, Alone
    • Capacity – Are they really weighing it up? if in doubt NO
    •  Observation
      • Mental Health Obs: Calm/Distresses/Agitated/Aggressive/Gone
    • No Scores predict risk – its a holistic assessment thats needed
    • Compassion & Communication – we shouldn’t make things worse for the patient
    • Restraint what to do and do we need it?
    • APEx course – ALSG


#RCEMasc 2019 – Day 2

Paracetamol 12hr SNAP regime: 2014 & 2019

  • What is it? 
    • Pre-NAC – 4mg Ondansetron IV
    • Bag 1 – 2hr 100mg/kg NAC in 200ml 5% Dex
    • Bag 2 – 10hr 200mg/kg NAC in 1000ml 5% Dex
  • Advantages
    • Saves 9hrs
    • Significant reduction in anaphylactoid reactions 2% vs 11%
    • Significant reduction in gastric symptoms (if either ondasetron or 12hr regime used)
    • Significant reduction in treatment pauses
  • What next?
    • 10 centres using (inc Edinburgh, Newcastle, Guys St Thomas’)
    • We can’t implement the 12hr regime just yet (however, discussions are going on with Acute Med and Hepatology)
    • Pre-NAC ondasetron does seem like a good idea


  • Comprehensive Frailty Assessments
    • NNT to prevent a death 17
    • NNT to prevent NH admission @ 6months 20
  • Frailty Score @ Triage 
    • Initially 50% accuracy (esp. around 4/5)
    • Addition of props significantly improved triage accuracy
      • Do you find walking more difficult or do you need mobility aid? Yes > 4+
      • Do you do your own shopping & housework? No > 5
      • Do you need help washing & dressing? Yes > 6
      • Do you live in a care home or have carers?
        • If carers > 5+
        • If needs assistance with personal care > 6-7
      • Are they confused or have a diagnosis of dementia? Yes > 5
  • Delerium
    • PINCHME  – for all frail patients they may not have delirium now but soon…
    • Parkinson’s Disease and can’t swallow
      • Find the right dispensable regime or patch – use pdmedcalc
    • Other ways of doing things
      •  TRAWL
        • South Tees frailty team call all discharged frail patients to ensure things are going well and arrange further input as needed
      • Falls Rapid Response Team
        • Newcastle and Gateshead, paramedic and OT in a car reduce, conveyance to ED from 75%(with Ambos) to 45%


We all do it and we all want the best death possible – But we often do it badly

  • 1:3 patients admitted on acute adult take are in their last year of life
  • 80% of NH patients are in the last year of life

But we don’t always know which patient or recognise how quickly this will happen – think about the following:

  • Parallel planning: we can be both treating the patient, and making plans how we can allow them the best death if they are dying.
  • Sedating For Scan: PAUSE – this might be the last time they are conscious, consider them and their family and do they need time
  • Use the word Dying: find out what is important to them, and their family, what are their fears and what they want to know, allow silence.
  • Society is unfamiliar with death: Narrating whats happening for the family can help, e.g “that rattley noise you can hear is only a small amount of fluid in their throat, it can sound horrid but its not bothering them at all” Remember we are used to these stages but to families they are scared and they often assume that the patient is suffering.

You may want to look at the talking about dying resources from the RCP

Top 10 papers

Go to St Emlyns’ see the whole thing and read the papers, subjects include:

  • Should every ROSC go straight to the Cath Lab?
  • AF: Mg & Early Shock
  • Dose Criocoid press just make things more difficult?
  • Can we bag during RSI?
  • Vasopressors: septic shock & haemorrhagic shock?
  • POCUS in cardiac arrest