Category: Resus

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraema is a common finding, especially within our elderly population. However, its significance is is not a simple numbers game, and needs senior input. Prior to treatment the following need to be considered and balanced.

  1. Symptoms Severity – these are not exclusive to hyponatraemia and may be due to other disease processes (esp. if the low sodium is long-term)
  2. Sodium Level – the sodium concentration doesn’t always correlate to the clinical picture, and is dependant on speed of change, and co-morbidities
  3. Rate of Drop – the faster sodium levels drop the more symptomatic the patient often is (i.e. with long term hyponatraema the patient may be profoundly hyponatraemic but asymptomatic)
  4. Co-morbidities – Increasing sodium too quickly risks osmotic demyelination. How well will the patient cope with treatment?

Emergency treatment (hypertonic saline) is generally indicated in those with Severe Symptoms ONLY

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Silver Trauma

The population is ageing and thus our ‘typical’ trauma patient is also changing. In 2017 the TARN report “Major injury in older people” highlighted the following issues:

  • The typical major trauma patient: has changed from a young and male to being an older patient.
  • Older Major Trauma Patients (ISS>15): A fall of <2m is the commonest mechanism of injury
  • Triage/Recognition of ‘Silver Trauma’ is POOR
    • Pre-hospital: Not identified hence taken to TU’s (Here) not MTC’s (Leeds).
    • The ED: Often seen by Junior Staff and endure significant treatment delays.
    • Hospital: Much less likely to be transferred to specialist care.
    • Outcomes: More likely to die, but those who survive have similar levels of disability to younger people.

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TXA – Tranexamic Acid

TXA a bleeding wonder drug!

Crash 2 Study (2010)

  • Multi-Centre RCT of the use of TXA in trauma
  • Inclusion – Adult trauma patients with ≥1 of
    • Suspicion of significant haemorrhage
    • HR ≥110bpm
    • sBP ≤90mmHg
  • Treatment – 1g TXA IV over 10min then a second 1g TXA IV over 8hrs
  • Outcome – Significant reduction in Death, bleeding with NO increase in clots(thrombotic disease)
    • Most benefit seen if given early (<3hr – NNT 53)

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Acidosis & VBG’s

We are frequently asked to check the lactate on Venous Blood Gases (VBG’s), by the nursing staff. However, remember to look at the first result (pH) it is the most important.

Acidosis: Unless you have a good reason (e.g. you know its due to DKA) you should be investigating and performing an Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)

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Decontamination – First Contact

REMOVE – REMOVE – REMOVE

Remove Them..

At reception ask them to go outside to designated area and staff will be with them shortly. Inform Nurse in Charge!

Remove Clothes..

Use the disrobing card to get the patient to safely remove and bag up clothes. Do your best to maintain privacy. CARD HERE

Remove Substance..

If we have ample warning or the number of patients will be significant, it may be worth deploying the decontamination tent but remember setting this up is time consuming.

0-12yrs WETFLAG

Tips: 

  • If particularly BiIG – go up 1-2 yrs
  • If particularly SMALL – go down 1-2 yr
  • Prepare ET Tubes 0.5mm bigger and smaller
  • Chid’s weight known – specific calculations can be found after tables.

Boys 0-14yrs

AgeBirth1mth3mth6mth12mth18mth2yr3yr4yr5yr6yr7yr8yr9yr10yr11yr12yr14yrAge
Weight3.5kg4.5kg6.5kg8kg9.5kg11kg12kg14kg16kg18kg21kg23kg25kg28kg31kg35kg43kg50kgWeight
Energy20J20J30J30J40J40J50J60J60J80J80J100J100J120J130J140J150J150JEnergy
Tube 3.0/3.5mm3.5mm3.5mm4mm4.5mm4.5mm4.5mm5mm5mm5.5mm5.5mm6mm6mm6.5mm6.5mm6.5mm7.5mm8mmTube
Fluid-Medical70ml90ml130ml160ml200ml220ml240ml280ml320ml360ml420ml460ml500ml500ml500ml500ml500ml500mlFluid-Medical
Fluid - Trauma 35ml45ml65ml80ml100ml110ml120ml140ml160ml180ml210ml230ml250ml250ml250ml250ml250ml250mlFluid-Trauma
Lorazepam 0.4mg0.5mg0.7mg0.8mg1.0mg1.1mg1.2mg1.4mg1.6mg1.8mg2.1mg2.3mg2.5mg2.8mg3.1mg3.5mg4.0mg4.0mgLorazepam
Adrenaline 1:10'0000.4ml0.5ml0.7ml0.8ml1.0ml1.1ml1.2ml1.4ml1.6ml1.8ml2.1ml2.3ml2.5ml2.8ml3.1ml3.5ml4.3ml5.0mlAdrenaline 1:10'000
Glucose 10% (ml)7ml9ml13ml16ml19ml22ml24ml28ml32ml36ml42ml46ml50ml56ml62ml70ml86ml100mlGlucose 10%

Girls 0-14yrs

AgeBirth1mth3mth6mth12mth18mth2yr3yr4yr5yr6yr7yr8yr9yr10yr11yr12yr14yrAge
Weight3.5kg4.5kg6kg7kg9kg10kg12kg14kg16kg18kg20kg22kg25kg28kg32kg35kg43kg50kgWeight
Energy20J20J30J30J40J40J50J60J60J80J80J90J100J120J130J140J150J150JEnergy
Tube 3.0/3.5mm3.5mm3.5mm4mm4.5mm4.5mm4.5mm5mm5mm5.5mm5.5mm6mm6mm6.5mm6.5mm6.5mm7.5mm8mmTube
Fluid-Medical70ml90ml120ml140ml180ml200ml240ml280ml320ml360ml400ml440ml500ml500ml500ml500ml500ml500mlFluid-Medical
Fluid - Trauma 35ml45ml60ml70ml90ml100ml120ml140ml160ml180ml200ml220ml250ml250ml250ml250ml250ml250mlFluid-Trauma
Lorazepam 0.4mg0.5mg0.6mg0.7mg0.9mg1.0mg1.2mg1.4mg1.6mg1.8mg2.0mg2.2mg2.5mg2.8mg3.2mg3.5mg4.0mg4.0mgLorazepam
Adrenaline 1:10'0000.4ml0.5ml0.6ml0.7ml0.9ml1.0ml1.2ml1.4ml1.6ml1.8ml2.0ml2.2ml2.5ml2.8ml3.2ml3.5ml4.3ml5.0mlAdrenaline 1:10'000
Glucose 10% (ml)7ml9ml12ml14ml18ml20ml24ml28ml32ml36ml40ml44ml50ml56ml64ml70ml86ml100mlGlucose 10%

Calculations

  • Energy (J) [max 150J] =4 x Weight(kg)
  • Fluid Medical (ml) = 20 x Weight(kg)
  • Fluid Trauma (ml) = 10 x Weight(kg)
  • Lorazepam (mg) [max 4mg] = 0.1 x Weight(kg)
  • Adrenaline 1:10’000 (ml) [max 10ml] = 0.1 x Weight(kg)
  • Glucose 10% (ml) = 2 x Weight(kg)

Information from APLS Aide-Memoire

 

Burns Referral Pathway

A new burns referral pathway has been developed with Mid Yorks to securely send images of the patients burn. Allowing the burns team to arrange the most appropriate follow-up for your patient.

This requires BOTH online referral & phone call

The Process

  1. GoTo –  Burns Homepage (NHS computers ONLY)
  2. Select – New Referral (NO login required)
  3. Complete – the following sections (* means required field)
    • Referrers Details – you will need an NHS email address
    • Patient Details
    • Injury Details – Answering “Yes” to airway burns or fluid resuscitation will open further boxes
    • Additional Details – Patient’s phone number and address (only appears if NO airway or resuscitation issues)
  4. Checklist – Ensure ALL completed and submit
  5. Sending an Image – After submission a QR code will appear to send an image you will need to us the SID App
    • Launch the SID App on mobile device – Yours or ED Co-Ordanator (apple/android)
    • Scan the QR code
    • Consent the patientPatient Information Leaflet
    • Take Photo of Injury  – this will not be saved on the device
  6. Phone Burns team – They can review the details and images and better advise you on management.

Resources