Category: Surgical

Vascular Emergencies (Regional Pathways)

Intro

Vascular surgery has been reconfigured across etc region. The vascular oncall will be based at BRI 24/7.

Multiple pathways have been developed below to help guide appropriate use – full guide HERE

AAA (Symptomatic)
 
AAA (Incidental)
 
Ischaemic Limb (Acute)

Ischaemic Limb (Critical)

Ischaemic Limb (Intermittent Claudication)
 
Uncontrolled Haemorrhage (Interventional Radiology)

Some patients benefit from control of bleeding using embolization techniques, which is a procedure performed by an Interventional Radiologist.

Patients should be treated in their receiving hospital to the maximum of that hospital’s capability, where at all possible. When all local treatment options have been exhausted, the patient should be discussed with one of the Arterial Centres (BRI) with a view to transfer for ongoing management by IR techniques.

Isolated Vascular Trauma

Diabetic Foot

Emergency Transfer

Urgent Vascular Clinic

Access is very limited to this clinic. It is envisioned by WYVas that access to UVAC for ED patients will be arranged through direct (telephone) referral to either:

  • IN hours: Local (HRI) or ON-Call (BRI)Vascular Consultant
  • OUT of hours: ON-Call (BRI) Vascular Consultant

Necrotising Fasciitis

Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a rare but serious bacterial infection that affects the soft tissue and fascia (Fournier gangrene, is NF affecting the perineum). In many cases NF progresses rapidly and early recognition and treatment is vital to halt progress. The mainstay of treatment is IV antibiotics and aggressive surgical debridement. Any delay increased the amount of tissue loss as well as the mortality. Read more

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is common and at best an unpleasant experience for the patient, and at worst can be life threatening. It normal starts @ 4-7/40, peaks @ 9/40, and finishes @ 20/40.

We need to conduct a thorough history and examination looking for causes other than a high βHCG. these include:

  • Abdominal pathology
  • Urinary pathology
  • Infections
  • Drug History
  • Chronic H.Pylori

Read more

Lateral Canthotomy

Like tension pneumothorax the biggest step is deciding to do it – Remember it it sight saving and they heal well

Retrobulbar Haematoma secondary to blunt eye injury is a a rare but potentially sight threatening injury.

  • Blood collects in the retrobulbar space
  • Pushing the eye forward to accommodate the extra volume.
  • The Orbital Septum (made up of the eyelids and ligaments that attach them to the orbital rim) restricts this forward movement, creating a compartment syndrome for the eye. Thus threatening the patients sight if not treated quickly.

Recognition

From Royal College Ophthalmologists

  • Severe pain
  • Red/Congested conjunctiva
  • Exophthalmos with proptosis – eye pushed forward
  • Internal ophthalmoplegia – impairment or loss of the pupillary reflex.
  • Visual flashes
  • Loss of vision – initially colour vision (esp. red), progressing to local visual loss.

However, this may only be recognised on CT if there is significant facial injury and altered conscious level.

Treatment

Call Ophthalmology immediately to attend. If there is going to be any significant delay, it may be necessary for ED to preform a Lateral Canthotomy, to allow the eye to move forward, reduce the orbital pressure & preserve the patients sight.

Kit needed

  • Lidocaine with adrenaline (needle & syringe)
  • Clamp – ideally curved to crush the tissues
  • Forceps
  • Scissors

Resources