Category: Sepsis

Rabies [notifiable disease]

Recent Incident: Bat contact was not recognized (effectively touching a bat without gloves means treatment is recommended)

Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis caused by members of the lyssavirus genus. The UK has been declared “Rabies-Free”. However, it is known that even in  “Rabies-Free” counties the bat population posse a risk.

In the UK the only bat to carry rabies is the Daubenton’s Bat [Picture on the Left] and this is not a common bat in the UK. The UK and Ireland are Classified as “low-risk” for bat exposure. Despite our “low-risk” status in 2002 a man died from rabies caught in the UK from bat exposure.

Although rabies is rare it is fatal so we must treat appropriately, Public Health England – Green book details this.

Risk Assessment

To establish patients risk and thus treatment you need to establish the Exposure Category and Country Risk [Link to Country Risk]

Exposure Category

Combined Country/Animal & Exposure Risk

Treatment

Obviously patients with wounds will need appropriate wound care and cleaning, specifics for rabies are below.

If in ANY doubt, or you feel you need advice about treatment contact: On-Call Microbiologist (who will contact PHE or Virology advice)

 

You will likely need to liaise with the duty pharmacist to obtain vaccine or HRIG – which may need to be sent from a different hospital. [it is probably worth trying to obtain the 1st weeks treatment if possible, to avoid treatment delays]

Rabies and Immunoglobulin Service (RIgS), National Infection Service, Public Health England, Colindale (PHE Colindale Duty Doctor out of hours): 0208 327 6204 or 0208 200 4400

 

 

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Sore Throat

Background

Acute sore throats are often caused by a virus, last about a week and get better without antibiotics. withholding antibiotics rarely causes complications. Antibiotic stewardship is everyone’s responsibility to prevent resistance developing.

Assessment

Are there any concerns regarding airway compromise?  – If yes – transfer to resus, give high flow Oxygen, IV steroids, IV antibiotics, Nebulised adrenaline 1:1000, IV fluids, take bloods and refer to both anaesthetics and ENT registrar.

Otherwise:

Assess all under 5s  with a temperature as per the NICE fever guidelines

Assess the patient for signs of severe sepsis – if present use the severe sepsis guidelines

If no signs of sepsis assess patient, exclude Quinsey (unilateral swelling, paina nd trismus) and calculate the FeverPAIN score and Centor score

FeverPAIN = 1 point for each of –

  • Fever
  • Purulent tonsillar exudate
  • Attendance within 3 days of onset
  • severely Inflamed tonsils
  • No cough/coryza

Centor = 1 point for each of –

  • Tonsillar exudate
  • Tender anterior cervical lymphadenopathy or lymphadenititis
  • History of fever >38
  • No cough

Treatment

Can the aptient swallow fluids and medication – if not give a stat dose of IV Dexametasone, IV antibiotics, IV fluids and analgesia – review in 2 hours. If they can swallow at this time then you can consider discharge with a patient information leaflet.

FeverPAIN = 0 or 1/ Centor = 0,1 or 2 – no antibiotics, self care advice

FeverPAIN = 2 or3 – no antibiotics or a script for 3-5 days time if no better, self care advice

FeverPAIN = 4 or 5 / Centor 3 or 4 = give Antibiotics immediately, self care advice

Patients to seek medical advice if become more unwell or not improving after 1 week

Self care advice – Paracetamol, Ibuporfen, Adequate fluids, Medicated lozenges

 

 

Antibiotics –

Phenoxymethylpenicillin 5-10 days

If Penicillin allergy – Clarithromycin or Erythromycin 5 days

Tonsillitis Patient Information Leaflet

Full NICE Guidance

 

Search: tonsillitis

Antibiotics Guides

Sepsis – Click Here

Suspected Covid-19 – Click Here

Site Specific – Click Here

Paediatric – Click Here

Using APP: Sepsis PDF HERE

Ideally use the above links

Covid-19 antibiotic regime no different  – unless confirmed or not responding then add: Flucloxacillin 2g IV QDS or Linezolid 60mg IV/PO BD

 

Can’t find it in our drug cupboard

try the Emergency Drug Cupboard

COVID-19 (X-Ray learning resource)

British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) have released a free learning resource containing CXR and CT of confirmed Covid-19 cases, will short history including time image was taken from onset of symptoms.

From the China experience CXR/CT doesn’t seem to be a rule out strategy in ED at the moment – However, its a useful resource to help recognition of Covid-19 CXR’s

BSTI Covid-19 image bank