Category: Medical

DVT pathway 2021

Signs and Symps

No single feature is diagnostic:

  • Single limb oedema – Most specific
  • Leg pain – 50% but is nonspecific
  • Calf pain on dorsiflexion of the foot (Homan’s sign)
  • Tenderness of deep veins – 75% of patients
  • Warmth AND/OR erythema (although blanching is possible)
  • A palpable, indurated, cordlike, tender subcutaneous venous segment

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NIV (Non Invasive Ventilation)

NIV should be considered for use in patients with a  persisting Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failures after a maximum of one hour of standard medical therapy.

  • Complete the Ad-hoc form
  • Increase pressures from Initial 12/5 cmH2O to 20/5cmH2O – as tolerated over 1st hour

However, ICU should be contacted early if the patient has one of the following:

  • Asthma – Intubation the option of choice in Life threatening
  • Pneumonia – NIV should only be considered as a bridge to intubation
  • No pre-exisiting respiratory issue – NIV not likely helpful
  • pH <7.25 (low threshold for ICU input)
  • pCO2 >6.5kPa (low threshold for ICU input)
  • Type 1 Respiratory Failure (low threshold for ICU input)

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Massive Transfusion Pathway

In the case of patient with Massive Haemorrhage weather that be from Trauma, Surgical, O&G, UGIB, you can activate the MTP

Remember:

  • Do the Basics – don’t forget ABCD
  • Inform Transfusion and get someone to run a G&S sample down
  • FFP can take up to 45min and platelets come from Leeds
  • If you no longer need the MTP – inform transfusion and return products ASAP
major haemorrage

PDF:MTP

 

Cervical (Carotid OR Vertebral) Artery Dissection

Cervical artery dissection is a rare but significant cause of stroke and headache/neckache, which is easy to overlook. Leading to a typically delay in diagnosis of 7 days. Unfortunately imaging the cervical arteries is not simple, with MRA being the method of choice. Hence these patients must be referred to the “Stroke Consultant”.

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LA – Toxicity

We are regularly doing femoral blocks next to major vessels. So warn the patient of the symptoms, & keep them monitored(at least 15 min).

Symptoms of local anaesthetic toxicity

  • Circumoral and/or tongue numbness
  • Metallic taste
  • Lightheadedness/Dizziness
  • Visual/Auditory disturbances (blurred vision/tinnitus)
  • Confused/Drowsiness/Fitting
  • Arrhythmia
  • Cardio-Resp Arrest

Remember – Do basics WELL

Intralipid – in antidote cupboard (Green Majors treatment room)

    1. Bolus – 1.5ml/kg 20% lipid solution over 1min
    2. Then start Infusion – 15ml/kg/hr 20% lipid solution
    3. 5 mins reassess if Cardiac instability/deterioration
      • Rpt Bolus 1.5ml/kg over 1min (max 3 boluses inc. initial)
      • Increase infusion rate – up to 30ml/kg/hr
      • Total Max dose 12ml/kg

Propofol is not a suitable substitute for lipid emulsion

Without Cardio-Resp Arrest

Use conventional therapies to treat:

  • Seizures
  • Hypotension
  • Bradycardia
  • Tachyarrhythmia (Lidocaine should not be used as an anti-arrhythmic therapy)

In Cardio-Resp Arrest

  • CPR – using standard protocols (Continue CPR throughout treatment with lipid emulsion)
  • Manage arrhythmias – using standard protocols
  • Consider the use of cardiopulmonary bypass if available
  • Recovery from LA-induced cardiac arrest may take >1 h
  • Lidocaine should not be used as an anti-arrhythmic therapy

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