Category: Cardiac

Malignant/Accelerated Hypertension

There are several terms commonly used “Accelerated Hypertension”, “Hypertensive Emergency”, “Malignant Hypertension”. They all have a very similar definition (ESC/ESH, NICE, ACEP)

Patient has both:

  1. Blood pressure: Systolic ≥180mmHg OR Diastolic ≥110mmHg (often >220/120mmHg)
  2. End-Organ Damage: Retinal Changes, Encephalopathy, Heart Failure, Acute Kidney Injury, etc.

Mortality has improved in recent years with 5yr survival of 80% if treated. However, untreated average life expectancy is 24 months.

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Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter (AF) – ESC 2020

Before you start 

  • Whats the cause? – treating the precipitant often sorts the AF (adding B-Blockers to Sepsis can make things worse)
  • Stable or Unstable?  – Electricity vs. Drugs
  • CHADS-VASC vs. HASBLED – Anticoagulation
  • Rhythm vs. Rate control??
  • NEW Symptomatic Arrhythmia Clinic – referral form attached tho the PDF

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Vascular Emergencies (Regional Pathways)

Intro

Vascular surgery has been reconfigured across etc region. The vascular oncall will be based at BRI 24/7.

Multiple pathways have been developed below to help guide appropriate use – full guide HERE

AAA (Symptomatic)
 
AAA (Incidental)
 
Ischaemic Limb (Acute)

Ischaemic Limb (Critical)

Ischaemic Limb (Intermittent Claudication)
 
Uncontrolled Haemorrhage (Interventional Radiology)

Some patients benefit from control of bleeding using embolization techniques, which is a procedure performed by an Interventional Radiologist.

Patients should be treated in their receiving hospital to the maximum of that hospital’s capability, where at all possible. When all local treatment options have been exhausted, the patient should be discussed with one of the Arterial Centres (BRI) with a view to transfer for ongoing management by IR techniques.

Isolated Vascular Trauma

Diabetic Foot

Emergency Transfer

Urgent Vascular Clinic

Access is very limited to this clinic. It is envisioned by WYVas that access to UVAC for ED patients will be arranged through direct (telephone) referral to either:

  • IN hours: Local (HRI) or ON-Call (BRI)Vascular Consultant
  • OUT of hours: ON-Call (BRI) Vascular Consultant

ECG placement & mis-LEADing ECG’s

  • V1: 4th intercostal space (ICS), RIGHT margin of the sternum
  • V2: 4th ICS along the LEFT margin of the sternum
  • V4: 5th ICS, mid-clavicular line
  • V3: midway between V2 and V4
  • V5: 5th ICS, anterior axillary line (same level as V4)
  • V7: Left posterior axillary line, in the same horizontal plane as V6.
  • V8: Tip of the left scapula, in the same horizontal plane as V6.
  • V9: Left paraspinal region, in the same horizontal plane as V6.

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Trust Dalteparin dosing

Trust Guidance varies slightly from BNF for those patients over 100kg

Non-Pregnant PE/DVT treatment

Dalteparin Cr Clearance >29ml/minDalteparin Cr Clearance 20-29ml/min
Weight (kg)DoseWeight (kg)Dose
<45kg7,500 units OD<63kg5,000 units am
2,500 units pm
45-56kg10,000 units OD63-80kg5,000 units BD
57-68kg12,500 units OD81-98kg7,500 units am
5,000 units pm
69-82kg15,000 units OD99-116kg7,500 units BD
83-100kg18,000 units OD117-134kg10,000 units am
7,500 units pm
101-115kg10,000 units BD135-152kg10,000 units BD
116-140kg12,500 units BD
>140kg15,000 units BD

Pregnant PE/DVT treatment

Weight (kg)Dose
<50kg10,000 units OD
50-69kg12,500 units OD
70-79kg15,000 units OD
80-89kg18,000 units OD
90-109kg20,000 units OD
110-124kg22,500 units OD
125-139kg12,500 units BD
140-154kg15,000 units am
12,500 units pm
155-169kg15,000 units BD