Category: speciality

DVT pathway 2021

Signs and Symps

No single feature is diagnostic:

  • Single limb oedema – Most specific
  • Leg pain – 50% but is nonspecific
  • Calf pain on dorsiflexion of the foot (Homan’s sign)
  • Tenderness of deep veins – 75% of patients
  • Warmth AND/OR erythema (although blanching is possible)
  • A palpable, indurated, cordlike, tender subcutaneous venous segment

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Methaemoglobinaemia

Q: Why are Smurf’s Blue? 

A: Methaemoglobin (MetHb) of course!

MetHb is produced by oxidisation of the Iron in Haemoglobin (Hb) from Fe2+ to Fe3+

Fe3+ prevents Hb carrying oxygen (thus produces symptoms of hypoxia)

Often due to chemical ingestion, but may also be genetic

Treated with Methyl Blue & supportive measures

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Hypernatraemia

Hypernatraemia is a not a common presentation in ED, as intense thirst often prevents significant hypernatraemia in neurologically intact individuals. So… Mortality rates are high (20-70%) and the severity of hypernatraemia has been shown be an independent predictor of mortality.

However, there is little good data on hypernatremia to base guidance on, and definitions vary within the literature

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