The patients ED needs to report has changed…
The key change with the new guidance is that not all patients who die in the ED need to be reported to the coroner….
Provided that none of the other circumstances as detailed in the guidance note apply deaths within 24 hours of admission to Hospital or a Hospice do not need to be reported with respect to a death of a person over 18 years of age in the following circumstances:
- A qualified medical practitioner certifies death is due to natural causes and
- The family or other party do not raise any concerns
The full guidance is available – Guide to Reporting Deaths April19
If you need to report to coroner – Death in ED
REALISTIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Read more
Advances in Acute Stroke Intervention
Dr Ian Rennie
Acute Stroke Thrombolysis only recannulates approximately 10% of large vessels.
MR CLEAN trial reduced disablED survivors following stroke from 53% to 29%. NNT <2 (New England Journal of Medicine 2015)
Dawn trial showed treatment up to 24 hours from “last well” can produce significant benefits. (New England Journal of Medicine 2018)
Included almost all patients for thrombectomy with large vessel occlusion who don’t have too much established infarct. No absolute cut off time, image vessels early.
Don’t treat those with a poor baseline function, extensive pmh, in hospital infarcts, established infarct on scan.
Pitfalls and Perils of Acute Neurology
Dr Thomas Peukert
Non orthopaedic cause of myelopathy (it’s not always cauda equina). ..
Think about onset…acute vs gradual
Think about time course…relapsing and remiting, deteriorating, stable, intermittent
If MRI spine is normal..have you imaged the right part of the spine? Is it too early? Have you imaged the right part or the right scan? Is the lesion not visible on MRI?
Is it a lesion in brain?
Is it a problem of neuromucular junction?
Is this a lower motor neuron lesion?
Spontaneous low pressure headache – sudden onset severe headache on standing can be associated with thoracic back pain due to spontaneous leak of csf often in the thoracic spine. Can pull brain downwards that looks like chiari malformation on MRI. Often associated with connective tissue disorders.
The Manchester Arena Major Incident
Mrs. Stella Smith
Patient id was a problem, the patients were carrying fake ID, particularly with transfusion, helped by ED based transfusion team.
Staff response needs to be tiered organisation by a distant member of staff helped.
Handovers needs to include everyone…managers, allied healthcare professionals, etc.
Ballistics and evidence collection training is needed by everyone as clothes, possessions, foreign bodies that are removed are all evidence.
Everyone needs Blast training….look in eyes, ears etc.
Managing a CBRN Incident
Dr Paul Russell
- Detect the incident…
- See. . ..self presenting toxidrome..123+ approach
- Hear ..take a history
- Smell..if it smells bad it is likely to be toxic
- Feel …unusual sensations
Many CBRN agents may have a delayed presentation or delayed detection so events may move on to other departments.
Protect yourself, collegues and environment
Decontamination should happen at scene however it often doesn’t happen.
Decontamination. ..remove clothes, blot dont rub with paper, wet decontaminate if needed.
Critical Care Research Update
Dr Rob MacSweeney
Polar trial – prehospital cooling for tbi and maintained for 7 days…no difference between 2 groups. Increased adverse events in cooled patients.
Eurotherm 3235 cooling raised icp patients caused harm, trial stopped early.
Rescueicp a decompressive craniectomy for icp>25mmhg, better icp control and more adverse events and no improvement in outcome
Paramedic2 adrenaline in shock refractory out of hospital cardiac arrest – adrenaline restarts heart and marginally improves survival but survivors had severe neurological impairment.
ALPS trial – Amiodarone, lidocaine, placebo in out of hospital cardiac arrest more likely to survive with drugs than placebo.
Eolia trial – ecmo for ARDS significantly improves survival at 60 days.
Florali – high flow nasal cannula oxygen vs face mask oxygen and niv for preoxygenation in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure needing RSI. Nasal Cannuale is best.
Beam trial boogie vs stylet for intubation with McGrath. ..boogie more likely to get 1st attempt intubation without complications.
IRIS trial – cricoid pressure vs sham pressure, no benefit from cricoid pressure.
Ideal-icu – when to start renal replacement therapy in severe sepsis induced renal failure at 12 hrs vs 48 hrs. ..no difference but very high mortality anyway.
Bicar-icu – bicarbonate for severe acidosis…some benefit of giving bicarbonate in severe acidosis.
Smart trial -Saline vs balanced crystolloid (Hartmans) for fluid resucitation in ICU, more adverse kidney events with saline.
Salt-ED Saline vs Hartmans in ED…no difference in hospital free days.
Adrenal trial -hydrocortisone vs placebo in Septic shock, reduced 90 mortality and reduced icu days with steroids.
Andromeda trial – shock treatment guided by peripheral perfusion vs Lactate guided resucitation …outcome better with perheral perfusion guided resucitation.
Censer trial – early noradrenaline in Septic shock reduces mortality
Tracheostomy Emergency Care – Dr Brendan McGarth
Needs to distinguish Tracheostomy from laryngectomy as a laryngectomy has no connection to the upper airway however a tracheostomy may have a connection so gives you 2 options for an airway.
Trachostomy problems commonly seen in the ED:-
Online learning modules available at the link
The Impact of Dental Presentations to the ED — Chetan Trivedi
Facial imaging his a high dose of radiation to senative tissues in often young people therefore careful examination is required prior tor Xrays.
Predictors of radiological abnormality in facial trauma-
Tenderness over maxillary
Step deformity in maxillary
Sensory loss over site of injury
Change in bite
Abnormal eye signs
Predictors of radiological abnormality in mandibular trauma-
Restricted or painful mouth opening
Tenderness over mandible
Sensory loss over site of injury
Change in bite/painful bite
Try to assess carefully prior or to imaging
Acute Ophthalmology— Felipe Dhawahir-Scala
Viral conjunctivitis all have preauricular or submandibular lymphadenopathy, highly contagious.
Do not give chloramphenicol to contact lens wearers use something with a broader spectrum.
Urgent conditions (reasons to get an ophthalmologist out of bed) —
Acute angle closure glaucoma -red painful eye, semi dilated pupil, – start iv acetazolamide immediately
Orbital cellulitis – eye doesn’t move, colour vision loss, fever, chemosis, proptosis -start Ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin orally, image and call ophthalmology.
Vertigo – Peter Johns
Concerning features- new or sustained headache or neck pain it’s a stroke or vertebral artery dissection until we prove it isn’t.
A central cause …Unable to walk or stand unaided, Weakness in limbs, the Deadly d’s… dysarthria, diplopia, dysphagia, dysarthria, dysphoria.
Short episodes of Vertigo (spinning/dizziness) on getting up/rolling over in bed, no spontaneous or gaze provoked nystagmus.
(End gaze nystagmus so normal variant, look to 30 degrees only.)
Need dix-hallpike testing likely BPPV – posterior canal BPPV.
Treat with Epley manoeuvre.
Horizontal Canal BPPV – Dix-hallpike manoeuvre is negative and they are less clear which side they turn to to get dizzy.
Spontaneous or gaze provoked nystagmus for days, nausea and vomiting and gait disturbance likely to be Vestibular neuronitis.
Test using HINTS plus Exam– nystagmus, test of skew, head impulse test, hearing loss. All components have a central or peripheral result for each component. If all 4 are peripheral results then it is a acute Vestibular neuroitis
Vestibular migraine – 30% never get headache, can last hours or days.
More common in women, perimenopausal, often get photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, vomiting and other typical migraine symptoms.
You tube – peter Johns (links here)
Working out what your patient might have been vaccinated for can be tricky, and more so if they were raised outside of the UK. Luckily there are a couple of tools online you can use to make this easier.
On rare occasions you may receive a pre-alert, where you want blood available for the patient when they arrive (for example in major haemorrhage). This process has been agreed with transfusion so this can be done safely and responsibly. Read more
In our case a child presented in status epilepticus, having received rectal diazepam from the ambulance crew, then 0.1mg/kg lorazepam in the ED, followed by 20mg/kg I.V. Phenytoin over 30 min, via a 24g cannula in back of the hand.
After intubation the patients thumb, index and middle fingers were all noted to be purple. Radial pulse was weak however, we saw good flow on ultrasound doppler in the ED. The patient had no cardiovascular Hx or FHx.
What the literature says
Mechanism (poorly understood)
- Phenytoin is highly Alkaline and may induce vasoconstriction and thrombus, resulting in leakage into the extravascular tissue.
- Phenytoin may precipitated when it mixes with acidic blood (More common in status patients rather than prophylaxis)
- I.V. Canulation may cause small tears promoting extravasation (In our case the cannula required repositioning on insertion)
- Phenytoin infusion rate should be the lesser of 1-3mg/kg/min OR under 50mg/min (In our case the infusion rate was 22mg/min, less than 1mg/kg/min)
- Smaller hand veins should be avoided (As in our case, most reports in literature involve the use of hand veins)
- Use 20G cannula or larger (This is ideal for adults and older children)
- Dark purple – Pale blue discolouration occurs around or distal to injection site 2-12hrs after administration. (In our case approx 30 min)
- Discolouration and Oedema progresses around site and into fingers, hand and forearm over the next 12-16 hours
- Healing, starts at the periphery moving towards the injection site – most patients have a full recovery over 72hrs (few cases of necrosis requiring amputation have been reported
- Stop giving phenytoin
- Dry Warm Heat (moist heat my contribute to skin breakdown)
- Regular neuromuscular assessments
- Avoid Cold (this will worsen the vasoconstriction)
- GTN patches have also been used in several of the cases but efficacy is unknown
- Avoid Hand veins for I.V. Phenytoin (this seems to be a contributing factor form the evidence, be it due to small size or more frequent injury of the vein though need to reposition?)
- Avoid Cannulas that required repositioning (increase chance of leaking)
- Use a big cannula (easier said than done in a fitting child)
- Purple glove syndrome following intravenous phenytoin administration
- Incidence and clinical consequence of the purple glove syndrome in patients receiving intravenous phenytoin
- Purple Glove Syndrome – Patient advisory
- Phenytoin-Induced Purple Glove Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
- Purple glove syndrome: A looming threat
- Purple glove syndrome following intravenous phenytoin administration
- PURPLE GLOVE SYNDROME IS NOT ALWAYS PURPLE AT THE INITIAL PRESENTATION: A Case Report and Literature Review
- Tissue necrosis of hand caused by phenytoin extravasation: An unusual occurrence
A button battery lodged in the Oesophagus is a medical emergency as it can cause necrosis and significant GI bleed – Refer immediately
If anybody is symptomatic after button battery ingestion they need referral to the Surgical team for urgent endoscopic removal Read more