Category: MSK

Silver Trauma

The population is ageing and thus our ‘typical’ trauma patient is also changing. In 2017 the TARN report “Major injury in older people” highlighted the following issues:

  • The typical major trauma patient: has changed from a young and male to being an older patient.
  • Older Major Trauma Patients (ISS>15): A fall of <2m is the commonest mechanism of injury
  • Triage/Recognition of ‘Silver Trauma’ is POOR
    • Pre-hospital: Not identified hence taken to TU’s (Here) not MTC’s (Leeds).
    • The ED: Often seen by Junior Staff and endure significant treatment delays.
    • Hospital: Much less likely to be transferred to specialist care.
    • Outcomes: More likely to die, but those who survive have similar levels of disability to younger people.

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TXA – Tranexamic Acid

TXA a bleeding wonder drug!

Crash 2 Study (2010)

  • Multi-Centre RCT of the use of TXA in trauma
  • Inclusion – Adult trauma patients with ≥1 of
    • Suspicion of significant haemorrhage
    • HR ≥110bpm
    • sBP ≤90mmHg
  • Treatment – 1g TXA IV over 10min then a second 1g TXA IV over 8hrs
  • Outcome – Significant reduction in Death, bleeding with NO increase in clots(thrombotic disease)
    • Most benefit seen if given early (<3hr – NNT 53)

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Haematoma Block – Colles’

Haematoma blocks can be a safe and effect method of pain relief to facilitate reducing Colles’ fractures.

What to give?

  • 1% Lidocaine
    • Onset 10-15min
    • Offset up to 2hr
  • 3mg/kg (maximum dose)
    • 70kg patient could have up to 210mg
  • Volume 1% Lidocaine = 10mg/ml 
    • 70kg = 210mg / 10 = 21ml
  • Signs of TOXICITY 
    • Sensory Disturbance: Facial tingling,  Numbness, Metallic taste, Tinnitus, Vertigo
    • Functional Disturbance: Slurred speech, Seizures, Reduced GCS
    • Cardiovascular: Hypotension, Palpitations
    • Treatment – ABCD, see LA-Toxicity [HERE]


Remember you are putting a needle into a sterile fracture and bone infection never ends well.

  • Chloro prep or Betadine – ensure it has time to dry
  • Sterile field
  • Sterile Gloves (particularly when learning)
  • No-Touch technique (Only if proficient)


a. Insertion

  • Find fracture site – move approx. 1cm proximally
  • Insert needle – bevel down & at approx. 30°, towards the fracture
  • Hit bone & slide – forward into the fracture
  • Aspirate – you should be able to aspirate some blood, but not always (however, its should not flow too easily, if it does are you in a vessel?)
  • Inject –  this often needs a bit of pressure, infiltrate approx. 1/4 of the volume.

b. Fanning (this is not always necessary but seems to improve outcome)

  • Withdrawal needle a little – keeping it under the skin.
  • Change angle & advance – into the fracture
  • Aspirate and Infiltrate – more lidocaine
  • Repeat – do this several times so you have walked needle across the fracture (Use approx. 1/2 the lidocaine)

c. Ulna styloid (Only needed if fracture or tender)

  • Find Ulna styloid
  • Insert needle – straight onto the styloid
  • Aspirate
  • Inject – you are not normally going into the fracture but leaving a bolus approx.1/4

Give the patient 10-15min while you set up for reduction for it to achieve peak effect –  then check how its working. (getting the patine to move their wrist is a good test)


ENP’s – DOP’s forms can be found here

NEW: Burns Referral Pathway

A new burns referral pathway has been developed with Mid Yorks to securely send images of the patients burn. Allowing the burns team to arrange the most appropriate follow-up for your patient.

This requires BOTH online referral & phone call

The Process

  1. GoTo –  Burns Homepage (NHS computers ONLY)
  2. Select – New Referral (NO login required)
  3. Complete – the following sections (* means required field)
    • Referrers Details – you will need an NHS email address
    • Patient Details
    • Injury Details – Answering “Yes” to airway burns or fluid resuscitation will open further boxes
    • Additional Details – Patient’s phone number and address (only appears if NO airway or resuscitation issues)
  4. Checklist – Ensure ALL completed and submit
  5. Sending an Image – After submission a QR code will appear to send an image you will need to us the SID App
    • Launch the SID App on mobile device – Yours or ED Co-Ordanator (apple/android)
    • Scan the QR code
    • Consent the patientPatient Information Leaflet
    • Take Photo of Injury  – this will not be saved on the device
  6. Phone Burns team – They can review the details and images and better advise you on management.