Author: rebecca isles

COVID-19 (Palliative Care)

Some patients who present with COVID-19 infection will be not suitable for escalation and actively dying when they attend the ED, for these patients the best management may be palliative care. The primary symptom that causes distress is breathlessness.

Palliative Care of COVID-19 patients will ideally be provided with a syringe driver and their symptoms well controlled using the standard guidance available via the Kirkwood Hospice Palliative Care Toolkit available HERE – Latest

However if there is no syringe driver available an alternative pathway has been produced

Injectable

Non-Injectable

 

Care of the Next Infant (CONI)

What is CONI?

Parents who have experienced a sudden and unexpected death of a baby or child often feel anxious when they have another baby. CONI is a programme working with local public healthcare providers to facilitate a service for bereaved parents to help with the anxieties around another baby.

Read more

Frailty Same Day Emergency Care Unit

The Fraility Same Day Emergency Care Unit (SDEC) is open at HRI.

This unit is designed to enable frail patients to return to their own homes as soon as possible with the care and support they need.

Is your patient frail? Calculate the Rockwood Score

Are they medically fit for discharge?

The SDEC may be the right place for them to ensure their discharge is safe and timely.

Flow to the SDEC

Full SDEC pathway is available here

Suspected Cauda Equina Syndrome

CDU at HRI has closed therefore the pathway for the management of patients requiring MRI for suspected CES has changed.

  • In hours
    • ED will arrange the MRI scan and review the results and refer to Neurosurgery as required.
  • Out of hours
    • Patient requires referral to Neurosurgeons stating we are unable to MRI OOH do they recommend transfer to LGI for MRI?
    • If Neurosurgeons do not accept for immediate transfer needs referral to Orthopaedics on call
    • Patient requires admission: then this is under the orthopaedic team.

 

The full pathway is  Suspected Cauda Equina Syndrome 2019

MRI Safety Questionnaire

Coroners Referrals

The patients ED needs to report has changed…

The key change with the new guidance is that not all patients who die in the ED need to be reported to the coroner….

Provided that none of the other circumstances as detailed in the guidance note apply deaths within 24 hours of admission to Hospital or a Hospice do not need to be reported with respect to a death of a person over 18 years of age in the following circumstances:

  • A qualified medical practitioner certifies death is due to natural causes and
  • The family or other party do not raise any concerns

The full guidance is available – Guide to Reporting Deaths April19

If you need to report to coronerDeath in ED

RCEM CPD 2019 Day 2

NEUROLOGY

#RCEMcpd  @RCEMevents

Advances in Acute Stroke Intervention 

Dr Ian Rennie

Acute Stroke Thrombolysis only recannulates approximately 10% of large vessels.

MR CLEAN trial reduced disablED survivors following stroke from 53% to 29%. NNT <2 (New England Journal of Medicine 2015)

Dawn trial showed treatment up to 24 hours from “last well” can produce significant benefits. (New England Journal of Medicine 2018)

Included almost all patients for thrombectomy with large vessel occlusion who don’t have too much established infarct. No absolute cut off time, image vessels early.

Don’t treat those with a poor baseline function, extensive pmh, in hospital infarcts, established infarct on scan.

 

Pitfalls and Perils of Acute Neurology 

Dr Thomas Peukert 

Non orthopaedic cause of myelopathy (it’s not always cauda equina). ..
Think about onset…acute vs gradual
Think about time course…relapsing and remiting, deteriorating, stable, intermittent

If MRI spine is normal..have you imaged the right part of the spine? Is it too early? Have you imaged the right part or the right scan? Is the lesion not visible on MRI?

Is it a lesion in brain?
Is it a problem of neuromucular junction?
Is this a lower motor neuron lesion?

Spontaneous low pressure headache – sudden onset severe headache on standing can be associated with thoracic back pain due to spontaneous leak of csf often in the thoracic spine. Can pull brain downwards that looks like chiari malformation on MRI. Often associated with connective tissue disorders.

ENVIRONMENTAL INCIDENTS

The Manchester Arena Major Incident 

Mrs. Stella Smith

Patient id was a problem, the patients were carrying fake ID, particularly with transfusion, helped by ED based transfusion team.

Staff response needs to be tiered organisation by a distant member of staff helped.

Handovers needs to include everyone…managers, allied healthcare professionals, etc.

Ballistics and evidence collection training is needed by everyone as clothes, possessions,  foreign bodies that are removed are all evidence.
Everyone needs Blast training….look in eyes, ears etc.

Managing a CBRN Incident 

Dr Paul Russell

  • Detect the incident…
  • See. . ..self presenting toxidrome..123+ approach
  • Hear ..take a history
  • Smell..if it smells bad it is likely to be toxic
  • Feel …unusual sensations

Many CBRN agents may have a delayed presentation or delayed detection so events may move on to other departments.
Protect yourself, collegues and environment
Decontamination should happen at scene however it often doesn’t happen.
Decontamination. ..remove clothes, blot dont rub with paper, wet decontaminate if needed.

Critical Care Research Update 

Dr Rob MacSweeney

Http://bit.do/ccr-rcem2019

Polar trial – prehospital cooling for tbi and maintained for 7 days…no difference between 2 groups. Increased adverse events in cooled patients.

Eurotherm 3235 cooling raised icp patients caused harm, trial stopped early.

Rescueicp a decompressive craniectomy for icp>25mmhg, better icp control and more adverse events and no improvement in outcome

Paramedic2 adrenaline in shock refractory out of hospital cardiac arrest – adrenaline restarts heart and marginally improves survival but survivors had severe neurological impairment.

ALPS trial – Amiodarone, lidocaine, placebo in out of hospital cardiac arrest more likely to survive with drugs than placebo.

Eolia trial – ecmo for ARDS significantly improves survival at 60 days.

Florali high flow nasal cannula oxygen vs face mask oxygen and niv for preoxygenation in patients with hypoxic respiratory  failure needing RSI. Nasal Cannuale is best.

Beam trial boogie vs stylet for intubation with McGrath. ..boogie more likely to get 1st attempt intubation without complications.

IRIS trial – cricoid pressure vs sham pressure, no benefit from cricoid pressure.

Ideal-icu when to start renal replacement therapy in severe sepsis induced renal failure at 12 hrs vs 48 hrs. ..no difference but very high mortality anyway.

Bicar-icu bicarbonate for severe acidosis…some benefit of giving bicarbonate in severe acidosis.

Smart trial -Saline vs balanced crystolloid (Hartmans) for fluid resucitation in ICU,  more adverse kidney events with saline.

Salt-ED Saline vs Hartmans in ED…no difference in hospital free days.

Adrenal trial -hydrocortisone vs placebo in Septic shock, reduced 90 mortality and reduced icu days with steroids.

Andromeda trial – shock treatment guided by peripheral perfusion vs Lactate guided resucitation …outcome better with perheral perfusion guided resucitation.

Censer trial early noradrenaline in Septic shock reduces mortality