Category: Obs & Gynae

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is common and at best an unpleasant experience for the patient, and at worst can be life threatening. It normal starts @ 4-7/40, peaks @ 9/40, and finishes @ 20/40.

We need to conduct a thorough history and examination looking for causes other than a high βHCG. these include:

  • Abdominal pathology
  • Urinary pathology
  • Infections
  • Drug History
  • Chronic H.Pylori

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Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy

Unfortunately the the normal pathway for investigation of PE performs poorly in pregnancy RCOG have the following pathway

1. Investigation – of suspected PE

  • Clinical assessment – its all on the history and exam scoring doesn’t work
  • Perform the following tests:
    • CXR – sheilding can protect the baby and may avoid further radiation
    • ECG
    • Bloods: FBC, U&E, LFTs
  • Commence Dalteparin (unless treatment is contraindicated) – BNF
  • Arrange admission to AAU/AMU (>20/40  AMU @CRH and inform Obstetrics)

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Anti-D immunoglobulin

Rhesus (Rh)-D negative women, pregnant with Rh-D positive foetus are at risk of developing antibodies against future pregnancies if/when they suffer a sensitising event. (Remember, this should be considered a standard treatment for all Rh-D negative women, as we are never certain of the fathers Rh-D status) Read more

Early Pregnancy Bleed <16/40

Bleeding in early pregnancy is a relatively common problem and in the many cases (esp. with spotting) the pregnancy remains viable. However, bleeding in early pregnancy should never be thought of as normal, and it is vital that we investigate this appropriately.


Communication is also vital at a very stressful time

  • Who you are discussing this pregnancy in front of? – Does the patient want them to know
  • Manage expectations – There is nothing we or mum can do to change the out come of the pregnancy apart from ensuring mum is well
  • Ensure the patient has all the details they need – Return advice, clinic time, where to go, what is happening
  • Be sensitive to the patients feelings – Patients respond very differently, be careful not to impose your emotions/assumptions on the situation

Think Anti-D!

Anti-D immunoglobulin guide


Search: ectopic pregnancy, Ectopic Pregancy, pv bleed, MISCARRIAGE, vaginal bleed, EPAU

Rape & Sexual Assault


Preform intimate examinations on Sexual assault/Rape patients

  • Unless life-threatening injuries are suspected e.g Haemorrhage.
  • As our examination will inevitably destroy evidence that may aid this patients case


  • Consider contamination injury (HIV, HepB, HepC) – Guide
  • Consider emergency contraception
  • Children must have police referral for safeguarding
  • Refer to The Sexual Assault Referral Centre, either via Police or Self referral

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