Category: Obs & Gynae

Sexual Health Referrals

Appropriate Conditions for GUM
  • Genital ulcers
  • Urethral discharge
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  • Testicular pain
  • Genital warts
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Emergency/ongoing Contraception
  • HIV risk concerns
  • Possible syphilis
  • PEP follow up
  • Pre-menopausal irregular vaginal bleeding
  • Known HIV patient please contact 01484 347077
PID Referral Criteria

History/Exam. – NICE CKS (Here) 

  • History:
    • Pelvic or lower abdominal pain (usually bilateral but can be unilateral).
    • Deep dyspareunia particularly of recent onset.
    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding (intermenstrual, postcoital, or ‘breakthrough’) which may be secondary to associated cervicitis and endometritis.
    • Abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge as a result of associated cervicitis, endometritis, or bacterial vaginosis. This is often very slight and may be transient, especially with chlamydial infection.
    • Right upper quadrant pain due to peri-hepatitis (Fitz–Hugh–Curtis syndrome).
    • Secondary dysmenorrhoea.
    • Ask about the possibility of pregnancy.
  • Exam: 
    • Lower abdominal tenderness (usually bilateral).
    • Adnexal tenderness (with or without a palpable mass), cervical motion tenderness, or uterine tenderness (on bimanual vaginal examination).
    • Abnormal cervical or vaginal mucopurulent discharge (on speculum examination).
    • A fever of greater than 38°C, although the temperature is often normal.

GUM Exclusions – Ref to Gynae

  • Pregnancy
  • Sepsis
  • Abscess

No GUM Exclusions – Complete following

  • Patient to preform 2 High Vaginal Swabs- Send For:
    • Chlamydia +Gonorrhoea 
    • TV
  • If Clinical Signs of PID – Treat with following (if allergies D/W Micro)
    • Ceftriaxone 1g i.m. – ONCE ONLY
    • Doxycycline 100mg twice a day & Metronidazole 400mg twice a day for 14 days
  • Refer to GUM (with/Without Signs)
Testicular Pain Criteria

GUM Exclusions – Ref to Urology

  • Torsion
  • Sepsis
  • Abscess

No GUM Exclusions – Complete following

  • 2 Urine Samples:
    • First Pass (white top) – Chlamydia +Gonorrhoea 
    • MSU (red top)
  • Treat with following (if allergies D/W Micro)
    • Doxycycline 100mg twice a day for 14 days
  • Refer to GUM 



  • E-Mail referral (patient details and brief description):
  • Patient Self Referral: 01422 261370
  • Address: Broad St, Halifax, HX1 1UB

Massive Transfusion Pathway

In the case of patient with Massive Haemorrhage weather that be from Trauma, Surgical, O&G, UGIB, you can activate the MTP


  • Do the Basics – don’t forget ABCD
  • Inform Transfusion and get someone to run a G&S sample down
  • FFP can take up to 45min and platelets come from Leeds
  • If you no longer need the MTP – inform transfusion and return products ASAP
major haemorrage



Anti-D immunoglobulin

Rhesus (Rh)-D negative women, pregnant with Rh-D positive foetus are at risk of developing antibodies against future pregnancies if/when they suffer a sensitising event. (Remember, this should be considered a standard treatment for all Rh-D negative women, as we are never certain of the fathers Rh-D status) Read more

Rape & Sexual Assault


Preform intimate examinations on Sexual assault/Rape patients

  • Unless life-threatening injuries are suspected e.g Haemorrhage.
  • As our examination will inevitably destroy evidence that may aid this patient’s case


  • Consider contamination injury (HIV, HepB, HepC) – Guide
  • Consider emergency contraception
  • Children must have police referral for safeguarding
  • Refer to The Sexual Assault Referral Centre, either via Police or Self referral

Read more

Early Pregnancy Bleed <16/40

Bleeding in early pregnancy is a relatively common problem and in the many cases (esp. with spotting) the pregnancy remains viable. However, bleeding in early pregnancy should never be thought of as normal, and it is vital that we investigate this appropriately.


Communication is also vital at a very stressful time

  • Who you are discussing this pregnancy in front of? – Does the patient want them to know
  • Manage expectations – There is nothing we or mum can do to change the out come of the pregnancy apart from ensuring mum is well
  • Ensure the patient has all the details they need – Return advice, clinic time, where to go, what is happening
  • Be sensitive to the patients feelings – Patients respond very differently, be careful not to impose your emotions/assumptions on the situation

Think Anti-D!

Anti-D immunoglobulin guide


Search: ectopic pregnancy, Ectopic Pregancy, pv bleed, MISCARRIAGE, vaginal bleed, EPAU

MHRA: Ondansetron small increased risk of oral clefts following use in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy

MHRA (Medicines & Healthcare products Regulatory Agency)  has recently published a warning regarding the use of ondasetron in early pregnancy.leading to a small but significant risk of cleft lip. – LINK HERE

Recent epidemiological studies report a small increased risk of orofacial malformations in babies born to women who used ondansetron in early pregnancy.1 4 Key evidence was an observational study of 1.8 million pregnancies in the USA of which 88,467 (4.9%) were exposed to oral ondansetron during the first trimester of pregnancy. The study reported that ondansetron use was associated with an additional 3 oral clefts per 10,000 births (14 cases per 10,000 births versus 11 cases per 10,000 births in the unexposed population).1 These data were recently reviewed within Europe and considered to be robust.

Patients with vomiting in early pregnancy requiring antiemetics you can review the guidance on “Hyperemesis Gravidarum”

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is common and at best an unpleasant experience for the patient, and at worst can be life threatening. It normal starts @ 4-7/40, peaks @ 9/40, and finishes @ 20/40.

We need to conduct a thorough history and examination looking for causes other than a high βHCG. these include:

  • Abdominal pathology
  • Urinary pathology
  • Infections
  • Drug History
  • Chronic H.Pylori

Read more

Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy

Unfortunately the the normal pathway for investigation of PE performs poorly in pregnancy RCOG have the following pathway

1. Investigation – of suspected PE

  • Clinical assessment – its all on the history and exam scoring doesn’t work
  • Perform the following tests:
    • CXR – sheilding can protect the baby and may avoid further radiation
    • ECG
    • Bloods: FBC, U&E, LFTs, Clotting
  • Commence Dalteparin (unless treatment is contraindicated) – [Trust Guide] OR  [BNF]