Red – Flags
- Bilateral Peripheral Nerve dysfunction
- New Bladder/Bowel/Sexual dysfunction
- Saddle/Peraneal altered sensation
Dr Ian Rennie
Acute Stroke Thrombolysis only recannulates approximately 10% of large vessels.
MR CLEAN trial reduced disablED survivors following stroke from 53% to 29%. NNT <2 (New England Journal of Medicine 2015)
Dawn trial showed treatment up to 24 hours from “last well” can produce significant benefits. (New England Journal of Medicine 2018)
Included almost all patients for thrombectomy with large vessel occlusion who don’t have too much established infarct. No absolute cut off time, image vessels early.
Don’t treat those with a poor baseline function, extensive pmh, in hospital infarcts, established infarct on scan.
Dr Thomas Peukert
Non orthopaedic cause of myelopathy (it’s not always cauda equina). ..
Think about onset…acute vs gradual
Think about time course…relapsing and remiting, deteriorating, stable, intermittent
If MRI spine is normal..have you imaged the right part of the spine? Is it too early? Have you imaged the right part or the right scan? Is the lesion not visible on MRI?
Is it a lesion in brain?
Is it a problem of neuromucular junction?
Is this a lower motor neuron lesion?
Spontaneous low pressure headache – sudden onset severe headache on standing can be associated with thoracic back pain due to spontaneous leak of csf often in the thoracic spine. Can pull brain downwards that looks like chiari malformation on MRI. Often associated with connective tissue disorders.
Patient id was a problem, the patients were carrying fake ID, particularly with transfusion, helped by ED based transfusion team.
Staff response needs to be tiered organisation by a distant member of staff helped.
Handovers needs to include everyone…managers, allied healthcare professionals, etc.
Ballistics and evidence collection training is needed by everyone as clothes, possessions, foreign bodies that are removed are all evidence.
Everyone needs Blast training….look in eyes, ears etc.
Many CBRN agents may have a delayed presentation or delayed detection so events may move on to other departments.
Protect yourself, collegues and environment
Decontamination should happen at scene however it often doesn’t happen.
Decontamination. ..remove clothes, blot dont rub with paper, wet decontaminate if needed.
Dr Rob MacSweeney
Polar trial – prehospital cooling for tbi and maintained for 7 days…no difference between 2 groups. Increased adverse events in cooled patients.
Eurotherm 3235 cooling raised icp patients caused harm, trial stopped early.
Rescueicp a decompressive craniectomy for icp>25mmhg, better icp control and more adverse events and no improvement in outcome
Paramedic2 adrenaline in shock refractory out of hospital cardiac arrest – adrenaline restarts heart and marginally improves survival but survivors had severe neurological impairment.
ALPS trial – Amiodarone, lidocaine, placebo in out of hospital cardiac arrest more likely to survive with drugs than placebo.
Eolia trial – ecmo for ARDS significantly improves survival at 60 days.
Florali – high flow nasal cannula oxygen vs face mask oxygen and niv for preoxygenation in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure needing RSI. Nasal Cannuale is best.
Beam trial boogie vs stylet for intubation with McGrath. ..boogie more likely to get 1st attempt intubation without complications.
IRIS trial – cricoid pressure vs sham pressure, no benefit from cricoid pressure.
Ideal-icu – when to start renal replacement therapy in severe sepsis induced renal failure at 12 hrs vs 48 hrs. ..no difference but very high mortality anyway.
Bicar-icu – bicarbonate for severe acidosis…some benefit of giving bicarbonate in severe acidosis.
Smart trial -Saline vs balanced crystolloid (Hartmans) for fluid resucitation in ICU, more adverse kidney events with saline.
Salt-ED Saline vs Hartmans in ED…no difference in hospital free days.
Adrenal trial -hydrocortisone vs placebo in Septic shock, reduced 90 mortality and reduced icu days with steroids.
Andromeda trial – shock treatment guided by peripheral perfusion vs Lactate guided resucitation …outcome better with perheral perfusion guided resucitation.
Censer trial – early noradrenaline in Septic shock reduces mortality
When we need to book an MRI e.g. for Cauda Equina, we need to print the MRI Questionnaire and complete it!
Although, most of this is built in to the EPR request that is not good enough, so avoid delays and do the form