REALISTIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Read more
Tracheostomy Emergency Care – Dr Brendan McGarth
Needs to distinguish Tracheostomy from laryngectomy as a laryngectomy has no connection to the upper airway however a tracheostomy may have a connection so gives you 2 options for an airway.
Trachostomy problems commonly seen in the ED:-
Online learning modules available at the link
The Impact of Dental Presentations to the ED — Chetan Trivedi
Facial imaging his a high dose of radiation to senative tissues in often young people therefore careful examination is required prior tor Xrays.
Predictors of radiological abnormality in facial trauma-
Tenderness over maxillary
Step deformity in maxillary
Sensory loss over site of injury
Change in bite
Abnormal eye signs
Predictors of radiological abnormality in mandibular trauma-
Restricted or painful mouth opening
Tenderness over mandible
Sensory loss over site of injury
Change in bite/painful bite
Try to assess carefully prior or to imaging
Acute Ophthalmology— Felipe Dhawahir-Scala
Viral conjunctivitis all have preauricular or submandibular lymphadenopathy, highly contagious.
Do not give chloramphenicol to contact lens wearers use something with a broader spectrum.
Urgent conditions (reasons to get an ophthalmologist out of bed) —
Acute angle closure glaucoma -red painful eye, semi dilated pupil, – start iv acetazolamide immediately
Orbital cellulitis – eye doesn’t move, colour vision loss, fever, chemosis, proptosis -start Ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin orally, image and call ophthalmology.
Vertigo – Peter Johns
Concerning features- new or sustained headache or neck pain it’s a stroke or vertebral artery dissection until we prove it isn’t.
A central cause …Unable to walk or stand unaided, Weakness in limbs, the Deadly d’s… dysarthria, diplopia, dysphagia, dysarthria, dysphoria.
Short episodes of Vertigo (spinning/dizziness) on getting up/rolling over in bed, no spontaneous or gaze provoked nystagmus.
(End gaze nystagmus so normal variant, look to 30 degrees only.)
Need dix-hallpike testing likely BPPV – posterior canal BPPV.
Treat with Epley manoeuvre.
Horizontal Canal BPPV – Dix-hallpike manoeuvre is negative and they are less clear which side they turn to to get dizzy.
Spontaneous or gaze provoked nystagmus for days, nausea and vomiting and gait disturbance likely to be Vestibular neuronitis.
Test using HINTS plus Exam– nystagmus, test of skew, head impulse test, hearing loss. All components have a central or peripheral result for each component. If all 4 are peripheral results then it is a acute Vestibular neuroitis
Vestibular migraine – 30% never get headache, can last hours or days.
More common in women, perimenopausal, often get photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, vomiting and other typical migraine symptoms.
You tube – peter Johns (links here)
We often worry about patients developing rhabdomyolysis and consequently developing AKI. However, there is much debate and little consistency in the published data, over how to diagnose and who needs admission to treat. So its important to consider both clinical context along with laboratory values
- Defined as any traumatic injury to the head other than superficial facial injuries.
- The commonest cause of death and disability in people age 1-40 in the UK.
- Account for 1.4 million ED attendances each year, 95% of these are minor head injuries that can be managed in the ED.
This pathway is for those patients who despite having a significant mechanism of injury, has survived relatively unscathed. Although they don’t require admission they could do with a period of observation.
This is not for patients that should be admitted but specialities are refusing. Escalate to your senior