Category: ENT

RCEM CPD 2019 Day 1

 HEAD AND NECK

Tracheostomy Emergency Care Dr Brendan McGarth

www.Tracheostomy.org.uk

Needs to distinguish Tracheostomy from laryngectomy as a laryngectomy has no connection to the upper airway however a tracheostomy may have a connection so gives you 2 options for an airway.

Trachostomy problems commonly seen in the ED:-
Tube obstructions
Tube displacement
Stoma problems
Skin problems

Tracheostomy Emergency Pathway

Laryngectomy Emergency Algorithm

Online learning  modules available at the link

www.e-lfh.org.uk/programmes/tracheostomy-safety/

 

The Impact of Dental Presentations to the ED  — Chetan Trivedi 

Facial imaging his a high dose of radiation to senative tissues in often young people therefore careful examination is required prior tor Xrays.

Predictors of radiological abnormality in facial trauma-

Tenderness over maxillary
Step deformity in maxillary
Sensory loss over site of injury
Change in bite
Subconjunctival haemhorrhage
Broken teeth
Periorbital haematoma
Abnormal eye signs

Predictors of radiological abnormality in mandibular trauma-
Restricted or painful mouth opening
Tenderness over mandible
Sensory loss over site of injury
Change in bite/painful bite
Broken teeth
Step deformity

Try to assess carefully prior or to imaging

 

Acute OphthalmologyFelipe Dhawahir-Scala

https://www.beecs.co.uk

Viral conjunctivitis all have preauricular or submandibular lymphadenopathy, highly contagious.

Do not give chloramphenicol to contact lens wearers use something with a broader spectrum.

Urgent conditions (reasons to get an ophthalmologist out of bed) —

Acute angle closure glaucoma -red painful eye, semi dilated pupil, – start iv acetazolamide immediately

Orbital cellulitis – eye doesn’t move, colour vision loss, fever, chemosis,  proptosis -start Ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin orally, image and call ophthalmology.

 

 

Vertigo – Peter Johns 

Concerning features- new or sustained headache or neck pain it’s a stroke or vertebral artery dissection until we prove it isn’t.

A central cause …Unable to walk or stand unaided, Weakness in limbs, the Deadly d’s… dysarthria,  diplopia, dysphagia, dysarthria,  dysphoria.

Short episodes of Vertigo  (spinning/dizziness) on getting up/rolling over in bed, no spontaneous or gaze provoked nystagmus.
(End gaze nystagmus so normal variant,  look to 30 degrees only.)
Need dix-hallpike testing likely BPPV – posterior canal BPPV.
Treat with Epley manoeuvre.

Horizontal Canal BPPV – Dix-hallpike manoeuvre is negative and they are less clear which side they turn to to get dizzy.

Spontaneous or gaze provoked nystagmus for days, nausea and vomiting and gait disturbance likely to be Vestibular neuronitis.

Test using HINTS plus Exam– nystagmus,  test of skew, head impulse test, hearing loss. All components have a central or peripheral result for each component. If all 4 are peripheral results then it is a acute Vestibular neuroitis

Vestibular migraine – 30% never get headache,  can last hours or days.
More common in women, perimenopausal, often get photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, vomiting and other typical migraine symptoms.

You tube – peter Johns (links here)

 

Epistaxis – Management

Nose bleeds are a bloody common problem (bad pun intended) – most originating at the front to the nose where there is a cluster of blood vessels – Little’s Area.

In the young the bleeding often starts after trauma (e.g. picking or punching noses). In the elderly however, it is commonly a manifestation of underlying vascular disease. Read more

Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s Plays is a lower motor neurone (LMN) lesion of the facial nerve (CN VII), which causes one side of the face to “droop” [1% of cases are bilateral], and patients are often concerned that it is a stroke.

However, unlike in stroke the whole face is affected, in stroke and other upper motor neurone (UMN) lesions the upper portion of the face is unaffected due to input from both sides of the brain. Read more

Sore Throat

Background

Acute sore throats are often caused by a virus, last about a week and get better without antibiotics. withholding antibiotics rarely causes complications. Antibiotic stewardship is everyone’s responsibility to prevent resistance developing.

Assessment

Assess all under 5s  with a temperature as per the NICE fever guidelines

Assess the patient for signs of severe sepsis – if present use the severe sepsis guidelines

If no signs of sepsis assess patient and calculate the FeverPAIN score and Centor score

FeverPAIN = 1 point for each of –

  • Fever
  • Purulent tonsillar exudate
  • Attendance within 3 days of onset
  • severely Inflamed tonsils
  • No cough/coryza

Centor = 1 point for each of –

  • Tonsillar exudate
  • Tender anterior cervical lymphadenopathy or lymphadenititis
  • History of fever >38
  • No cough

Treatment

FeverPAIN = 0 or 1/ Centor = 0,1 or 2 – no antibiotics, self care advice

FeverPAIN = 2 or3 – no antibiotics or a script for 3-5 days time if no better, self care advice

FeverPAIN = 4 or 5 / Centor 3 or 4 = give Antibiotics immediately, self care advice

Patients to seek medical advice if become more unwell or not improving after 1 week

Self care advice – Paracetamol, Ibuporfen, Adequate fluids, Medicated lozenges

If the patient has signs of being significantly unwell or a high risk of complications do not withhold antibiotics

Antibiotics –

Phenoxymethylpenicillin 5-10 days

If Penicillin allergy – Clarithromycin or Erythromycin 5 days

Full NICE Guidance

 

Search: tonsillitis

Vertigo in ED

Vertigo is not always labyrinthitis!! There are some potentially serious conditions to think about. Your main question should be  is it peripheral or central [badness].

  • Peripheral: sudden, short episodes, no neurology, able to walk
  • Central: insidious, prolonged, neurology, older, difficult to walk

Think about the HINTS exam, its particularly good at identifying posterior strokes (however the patient needs to feel dizzy at reg time of the test

PDF:vertigo

DVLA – sudden onset dizziness Read more