RespED – flow chart


Awake Self-Proning

There is increasing evidence that Awake Self-Proning of our Covid-19 patients can improve oxygenation. Proning the patient can has several effects which can dramatically improve their SaO2

  • Improves Ventilation to back of the lung (the back of the lung contains more alveoli than the anterior lung)
  • Improves Perfusion – as blood supply to the back of the lung is always better than the front
  • Improves Clearance of secretions

  • NIV/CPAP  is an Aerosol Generating Proceedure (AGP)
    • Staff must wear full APG PPE
    • In Side room with a door
    • Door Marked with APG sign – HERE
  • CPAP/EPAP levels of 8-15cmH2O setup video and picture

  • BTS has released the guidanceHERE 
    • Masks
      • Well-fitting oronasal facemasks, masks over the total face, or helmets should produce least droplet dissemination.
      • Vented masks could worsen contamination of the environment
      • Any patient on acute NIV should be managed with a non-vented mask and an exhalation port in the circuit.
      • Ensure that the ventilator mode employed supports the use of non-vented masks and exhalation ports.
      • Sequence of actions: NIV mask on >ventilator on; ventilator off > NIV mask off.
    • Filters
      • A viral/bacterial filter should be placed in the circuit between the mask and the exhalation port (Figure below).
      • This viral/bacterial filter can replace any filter at the machine end of the circuit.
      • Viral/bacterial filters should ideally be changed every 24 hours or sooner. (There is a risk that they will become wet due to exhaled gas and that this may increase resistance to flow.)
      • An external humidifier must not be used.
      • Blocked filters can be mistaken for clinical deterioration; this issue is remedied by changing filters.
    • Oxygen – entrained at patients end (on mask


      • Failing on NIV/CPAP – Consider either escalation to intubation OR palliation
      • Maintaining Oxygenation – At CRH negative pressure room, at HRI side room acute floor

If Treating Moderate/Severe Pneumonia with antibiotic please ensure – Sputum/Urine/Blood samples ordered


Tamiflu – Only if confirmed influenza


Deteriorating Patients

  • Early senior decision making around DNACPR, is vital for both staff, patients, and families.
  • Document decsion making and communications clearly
  • There will be regular updates in “handover” about ICU admission criteria – as these may change over time

CPR (Aerosol Generation Proceedure)

  1. Recognise cardiac arrest.
    • Look for the absence of signs of life and normal breathing.
    • Feel for a carotid pulse if trained to do so.
    • Do not listen or feel for breathing
    • If there are any doubts – start chest compressions until help arrives.
    • When calling for help/2222, state the risk of COVID 19.
  2. Minimum PPE; gown, eye protection, gloves and FFP3 mask/Hood before starting chest compressions
    • No chest compressions or airway procedures such as those detailed below should be undertaken without full AGP PPE.
  3. Start compression-only CPR and monitor the patient’s cardiac arrest rhythm as soon as possible.
    • Avoid mouth-to-mouth ventilation and the use of a pocket mask.
    • Place oxygen face mask on the patient’s face during chest compressions (may limit aerosol spread).
    • Restrict the number of staff in the room (if a single room). Allocate a gatekeeper to do this.
  4. Defibrillate shockable rhythms rapidly 
  5. LMA/ETT insertion –  must be carried out by experienced individuals.
  6. Identify and treat any reversible causes 
  7. Post-CPR
    • Dispose of, or clean, all equipment used during CPR
    • Remove PPE safely to avoid self-contamination
    • Hand hygiene has an important role in decreasing transmission.
    • Post resuscitation debrief is important and should be planned.

FULL Resus Council – GUIDE HERE


Staff Isolation

Scenario 1 – Staff member Symptomatic


Scenario 2 – Staff member asymptomatic, with a positive contact (inc. within household)

Full guide – HERE