Vertigo in ED

Vertigo is not always labyrinthitis!! There are some potentially serious conditions to think about. Your main question should be is it peripheral [good] or central [bad]?

1. Any features that mandate imaging?

  • Neurology deficit
  • Significant headache
  • Neck pain
  • Unable to stand or walk
  • Spontaneous vertical nystagmus (i.e. not while doing dix-hallpike)

2. History

  • Short episodes <2 min brought on by movement, no spontaneous nystagmus (i.e. only on move)
    • BPPV > Dix-Hallpike
  • Dizzy for Hours
    • Vestibular neuritis vs central > HINTSplus exam (you can only use HINTS if patient is dizzy and has nystagmus)

IndicatorPeripheral Central
OnsetSuddenInsidious
CourseParoxysmalContinuous
IntensityMaximum initial Mild
DurationMin-HrsDays-Weeks
Vertical Nystagmus NoYes
Affect of Movement Significant Mild-None
Tinnitus/DeafnessCommonRare
Other NeurologyAbsentPresent
WalkingAbleFalls, V. unstable
HINTS ExamAll PeripheralAny Central

Think about the HINTS exam, its particularly good at identifying posterior strokes (however the patient needs to feel dizzy at reg time of the test)

 

Causes

CauseDurationAuditoryPeriph/Central
BPPVSecondsNoPeripheral
Vest. NeuritisDaysNoPeripheral
Meniere’sHoursYesPeripheral
Perilymphatic fistulasecondsYesPeripheral
LabyrinthitisDaysYesPeripheral
Acoustic neuromaMonthsYesPeripheral
TIA<24hrNoCentral
StrokeDaysNoCentral
Migraine (Vest.)HoursNoCentral

Vestibular migraine

  • One to think about if patient presents without nystagmus  – patient should state:
    • Recurrent (at least 5 episodes)
    • Lasts unto 72hrs
    • Has a temporal relationship to migraine symptoms (this may be aura symptoms not headache) at least 50% of the time
  • Apparently 2.5% population get this, most un/miss-diagnosed, metacloprimide can help

HINTS Exam – video link

  • Head Impulse test
    • Rapid passive rotation of head while patient fixes on your nose
    • Fixes on nose (central/normal)
    • Eyes Correct (periph)
  • Nystagmus
    • Bilat/Vertical (central)
    • Horiz. Unilat (periph)
  • Test of Skew
    • Repeated cover test of eyes while fixed on nose.
    • Eyes move (central)
    • Eyes steady (periph)

HINTS Result

  • ANY Central features would indicate a central vertigo
  • Caution – Only valid if patient dizzy at time. As head impulse test will be normal(i.e score as central) if not dizzy.
  • Accuracy – More sensitive than MRI. Sensitivity 96-100% Specificity 85-98%

Treatment

  • Medication
    • Prochloperazine PO 5mg TDS
    • Prochloperazine injection 12.5mg IM
    • Betahistine 16mg tds (most effective in Meniere’s)
  • Habituation
    • Identified dizziness-provoking movements
    • Repeat them: five times in a row and twice a day
    • Helps to achieve vestibular compensation.
  • Follow-Up
    • Peripheral – GP/ENT clinic
    • Central – Admission or TIA clinic after discussion with stroke team (Most will require imaging from ED)
    • DVLA – sudden onset dizziness

 

Video Guides:

Posterior canal BPPV – Dix-Hallpike and Epley manoeuvre

Horizontal canal BPPV sounds similar to posterior canal (D-H+eply) but tends severe when moves head when upright – tests and how to treat different

 

PDF:vertigo

DVLA – sudden onset dizziness

search: dizzy, dizziness,

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