Category: Surgical

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is common and at best an unpleasant experience for the patient, and at worst can be life threatening. It normal starts @ 4-7/40, peaks @ 9/40, and finishes @ 20/40.

We need to conduct a thorough history and examination looking for causes other than a high βHCG. these include:

  • Abdominal pathology
  • Urinary pathology
  • Infections
  • Drug History
  • Chronic H.Pylori

Read more

Lateral Canthotomy

Retrobulbar Haematoma secondary to blunt eye injury is a a rare but potentially sight threatening injury.

  • Blood collects in the retrobulbar space
  • Pushing the eye forward to accommodate the extra volume.
  • The Orbital Septum (made up of the eyelids and ligaments that attach them to the orbital rim) restricts this forward movement, creating a compartment syndrome for the eye. Thus threatening the patients sight if not treated quickly.

Recognition

From Royal College Ophthalmologists

  • Severe pain
  • Red/Congested conjunctiva
  • Exophthalmos with proptosis – eye pushed forward
  • Internal ophthalmoplegia – impairment or loss of the pupillary reflex.
  • Visual flashes
  • Loss of vision – initially colour vision, progressing to local visual loss.

However, this may only be recognised on CT if there is significant facial injury and altered conscious level.

Treatment

Call Ophthalmology immediately to attend. If there is going to be any significant delay, it may be necessary for ED to preform a Lateral Canthotomy, to allow the eye to move forward, reduce the orbital pressure & preserve the patients sight.

Kit needed

  • Lidocaine with adrenaline (needle & syringe)
  • Clamp – ideally curved to crush the tissues
  • Forceps
  • Scissors

Resources

RCEM CPD 2019 Day 1

 HEAD AND NECK

Tracheostomy Emergency Care Dr Brendan McGarth

www.Tracheostomy.org.uk

Needs to distinguish Tracheostomy from laryngectomy as a laryngectomy has no connection to the upper airway however a tracheostomy may have a connection so gives you 2 options for an airway.

Trachostomy problems commonly seen in the ED:-
Tube obstructions
Tube displacement
Stoma problems
Skin problems

Tracheostomy Emergency Pathway

Laryngectomy Emergency Algorithm

Online learning  modules available at the link

www.e-lfh.org.uk/programmes/tracheostomy-safety/

 

The Impact of Dental Presentations to the ED  — Chetan Trivedi 

Facial imaging his a high dose of radiation to senative tissues in often young people therefore careful examination is required prior tor Xrays.

Predictors of radiological abnormality in facial trauma-

Tenderness over maxillary
Step deformity in maxillary
Sensory loss over site of injury
Change in bite
Subconjunctival haemhorrhage
Broken teeth
Periorbital haematoma
Abnormal eye signs

Predictors of radiological abnormality in mandibular trauma-
Restricted or painful mouth opening
Tenderness over mandible
Sensory loss over site of injury
Change in bite/painful bite
Broken teeth
Step deformity

Try to assess carefully prior or to imaging

 

Acute OphthalmologyFelipe Dhawahir-Scala

https://www.beecs.co.uk

Viral conjunctivitis all have preauricular or submandibular lymphadenopathy, highly contagious.

Do not give chloramphenicol to contact lens wearers use something with a broader spectrum.

Urgent conditions (reasons to get an ophthalmologist out of bed) —

Acute angle closure glaucoma -red painful eye, semi dilated pupil, – start iv acetazolamide immediately

Orbital cellulitis – eye doesn’t move, colour vision loss, fever, chemosis,  proptosis -start Ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin orally, image and call ophthalmology.

 

 

Vertigo – Peter Johns 

Concerning features- new or sustained headache or neck pain it’s a stroke or vertebral artery dissection until we prove it isn’t.

A central cause …Unable to walk or stand unaided, Weakness in limbs, the Deadly d’s… dysarthria,  diplopia, dysphagia, dysarthria,  dysphoria.

Short episodes of Vertigo  (spinning/dizziness) on getting up/rolling over in bed, no spontaneous or gaze provoked nystagmus.
(End gaze nystagmus so normal variant,  look to 30 degrees only.)
Need dix-hallpike testing likely BPPV – posterior canal BPPV.
Treat with Epley manoeuvre.

Horizontal Canal BPPV – Dix-hallpike manoeuvre is negative and they are less clear which side they turn to to get dizzy.

Spontaneous or gaze provoked nystagmus for days, nausea and vomiting and gait disturbance likely to be Vestibular neuronitis.

Test using HINTS plus Exam– nystagmus,  test of skew, head impulse test, hearing loss. All components have a central or peripheral result for each component. If all 4 are peripheral results then it is a acute Vestibular neuroitis

Vestibular migraine – 30% never get headache,  can last hours or days.
More common in women, perimenopausal, often get photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, vomiting and other typical migraine symptoms.

You tube – peter Johns (links here)

 

Thomas Spint – how to apply

Invented by a Welshman ‘Hugh Owen Thomas’, the introduction of this simple device in World War 1 went on to reduce the mortality of #femurs from 80% to 16%.

The Kit

  • Measuring Tape
  • Thomas splint – Adult or Paediatric (depending on size)
  • Hoop – Sizing guide can be found here
  • Slings
  • Hoop Pad
  • Skin Traction – Adult or Paediatric
  • Padding rolls x 2
  • Bandages (wide) x 2
  • Tape
  • Scissors
  • Tongue Depressors x 2

Printable application guide

Measuring

Measure the Inside Leg (unbroken leg) and add 30cm/12inch (to give room for the traction)

Adjusting Splint

Adjust length to the above measurement. ensuring the Hoop is at an angle with the lateral (outside leg) higher than the medial (inside leg).

Set up

  • Apply the hoop Pad (to reduce pressure and secure to tight)
  • Apply the 4 slings (lowest should be 40cm from base)
  • Apply padding along slings
  • Creat a small padding for behind the knee

Application

  • Ensure Adequate analgesia (this hurts) – typically Opiates and entonox
    • Femoral nerve block may be helpful (however, this is variable due to the innovation of the femur and reduces the more distal the fracture)
  • Check Genitals not trapped – by the hoop
  • Apply skin traction & and bandage from ankle to thigh
  • Secure the tight Clip – remembering to put the padding under the clip and velcro round

The Knot

1. take the strings and pass one over and one under the sides of the frame.

2. secure tightly with a Reef Knot

3. pass strings down (one over and one under) around the base, bringing them back over the Reef Knot and  back around the base. This makes a pulley system.

4. Tension the pulley system and tie-off using a bow

5. Pass the tongue depressors (2 tongue depressors tapped together), twist the tongue depressors to achieve the required tension, and lock off against the side.

 

Bandage & Elevate

  • Bandage the leg to the sling using the bandage – to keep secure
  • Place a pillow or blankets under the splint to elevate the heel – To prevent pressure sores